e.g. stands for exempli gratia means “for example”. It is a Latin phrase. e.g. is used before giving specific examples that support your assertion.
i.e. stands for id est means “that is”. It is a Latin phrase. i.e. is a way of saying “in other words.”
It’s designed to make something clearer by providing a definition or saying it in a more common way.
2. “I wish I was dead.” and “I wish I were a bird.” why WAS and WERE?
If both sentences use “was” it would be wrong.
“I was dead” is a statement of fact. It means “I was dead, but now I’m not dead.” Of course that isn’t possible, but you can say it. The grammar is right.
“I was a bird” is a statement of fact. It means “I was a bird, but now I’m not a bird.” That isn’t possible either.
“Was” in these sentences is called the indicative mood.
“I wish I were dead” expresses a wish, not a fact. It means “I wish I were dead, but I’m not dead.”
“I wish I were a bird”, again, expresses a wish, not a fact. It means “I wish I were a bird, but I’m not a bird.”
“Were” in these sentences in called the subjunctive mood.
You can’t say “I wish I was dead,” “I wish I was a bird” because that doesn’t make any sense. You can’t use the indicative mood when you’re wishing.
Note: Some native English speakers say “I wish I was dead,” “I wish I was a bird” because they don’t understand the subjunctive mood. They use the wrong English because they don’t know how to say it correctly.